Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to Suffering of Others

February 19, 2009 -

Call it the "Pink Floyd Effect."

A just-released research report claims that playing violent video games makes players "comfortably numb" to the pain and suffering of others.

The study, conducted by University of Michigan professor Brad Bushman and Iowa State University professor Craig Anderson, appears in the March 2009 issue of Psychological Science.

Both Bushman and Anderson have previously published research with negative findings about violent games. A press release describes the research methodology employed in the new report:

320 college students played either a violent or a nonviolent video game for approximately 20 minutes.  A few minutes later, they overheard a staged fight that ended with the "victim" sustaining a sprained ankle and groaning in pain.

 

People who had played a violent game took significantly longer to help the victim than those who played a nonviolent game---73 seconds compared to 16 seconds. People who had played a violent game were also less likely to notice and report the fight. And if they did report it, they judged it to be less serious than did those who had played a nonviolent game.
 
In the second study, the participants were 162 adult moviegoers. The researchers staged a minor emergency outside the theater... The researchers timed how long it took moviegoers to [help]... Participants who had just watched a violent movie took over 26 percent longer to help than either people going into the theater or people who had just watched a nonviolent movie.

Prof. Bushman (left) commented:

These studies clearly show that violent media exposure can reduce helping behavior. People exposed to media violence are less helpful to others in need because they are 'comfortably numb' to the pain and suffering of others, to borrow the title of a Pink Floyd song.


Comments

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Aside from the methodological questions asked above:

What I want to know, and what all of you should want to know (and I won't know for a while because my school's library is notoriously slow) is the effect size, or r. How much of A can account for B? 

All of Anderson's and Bushmans (and other researchers) studies have, at best, effect sizes of .12 to .19. Which is considered a small effect. This is based on several meta-analyses.

Second, you'd also want to know the confidence interval. Because the p-value which makes it significant, really means nothing. It just says the data is unlikely to be due to chance.

Anderson's studies usually have notoriously low effect sizes, and they are usually inflated when they use pen and paper survey methods.

Just some food for thought for everyone that might decide to read this study.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

I agree, and with Anderson's reputation for horrible methodology, his media effects type of studies and his bias towards violent digital media... it makes me just go "Oh, him again."

Then again, it's good that guys like him leave so much to criticize. It provides other media researchers with the incentive to improve on it and to stay on guard for possible biases even more.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

"People who watch violent movies slower to react to fake fight. Also, after playing a video game people are less likely to over-react other people having a confrontation" not as good a premise for a scientific paper?

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

Clever name...  Bullshit claim.

No, Luke, I AM the Walrus

No, Luke, I AM the Walrus

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

I'm not even a Pink Floyd fan, and I just have to say: Don't use that awesome song for a cause so stupid!

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

I can understand videogames being a factor in amount of time to react, but there are multiple reasons why a person may not react to a person in crisis or in a simple scuffle.

Consider that in large groups of people watching something bad happen very few ever react or do something to stop it. Mob mentality almost always says "Someone else will do it, I don't have to waste my time trying to stop the fight."

Also consider the context of the situation. What if the person who just got hurt was the jerk who started the fight? Who is going to help them or report anything? Consider the lab situation where the person probably has a professor or similar authority figure around which the subject considers in charge of the situation. It's not their job as students to deal with and report fights, so why should they immediately jump into action?

The big problem here is that this has nothing to do with videogames. This is like some poor misguided experiemnt testing a person's initiative versus their trust in a nearby authority figure.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

These studies clearly show that violent media exposure can reduce helping behavior. People exposed to media violence are less helpful to others in need because they are 'comfortably numb' to the pain and suffering of others, to borrow the title of a Pink Floyd song.

The same can be said about people who've been in abusive homes growing up, or in the army.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

These studies clearly show that violent media exposure can reduce helping behavior. People exposed to media violence are less helpful to others in need because they are 'comfortably numb' to the pain and suffering of others, to borrow the title of a Pink Floyd song.

What about the charities that have been set up and sponsored by gamers?  I mean, Get Well Gamers and Child's Play, do they mean nothing?

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

I'm not questioning the methodology of the study, or its conclusions.

 

My only question is: Who cares?

Society doesn't have to be "helpful."  In fact, in this day and age, being "helpful" is more likely to get you messed up, than keeping to yourself.

In many neighborhoods, you don't help the person who got beat in a fight.  You know why?  Because that guy/girl isn't a "victim," they were a willing participant.  In addition, you have no way of knowing if they are bitter about getting beat and are instead going to get a gun or a knife with which to exact their vengeance.

Just call the cops and be done with it.

 

"You know what I wish? I wish all the scum of the Earth had one throat and I had my hands about it."

"You know what I wish? I wish all the scum of the Earth had one throat and I had my hands about it."

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

It's difficult to evaluate the merits of a press release, because we have neither the study nor the magazine article. But a few items stand out.

The videogamers were given a task to do during the staged injury - fill out a form.

The movie watchers also had a task to do - ostensibly they were leaving and trying to get to their cars, etc.

Did the control group have a comparable task with which they were occupied? If not, then what has been shown is that people who have something to do are less likely to help others than someone whose time is not occupied. This is not a surprising finding.

I would also like to know the sizes of the groups. It says 320 gamers and 162 moviegoers. It does not say if the test members were tested one at a time, in small groups, or in in large ones. It also does not say the size of the control groups.

How do you adjust for the conditions on a public street outside a theatre? If a police car or ambulance was driving by, I expect fewer people would feel their help was necessary. How was this controlled? What about the behaviors and reactions of people on that street who were not part of the study? If one of the non-participants goes to the "victim's" aid, then that diminishes other people's sense of responsibility.

Then there is the question of screening. Were the gamers already gamers? Were the moviegoers regular moviegoers? What about the control groups?

Videogames and movies have loud, fast, and suspenseful images. Were the contol group members exposed to something loud, fast and suspenseful that was non-violent, to adjust for this as a variable?

I'm also not sure that the sweeping conclusion corresponds to the data. If the test subjects were numbed, why did they help at all, as it appears many of them did, albeit a few seconds slower?

How about this - apparantly the injury was sustained in a fight. Where was the attacker? Was he still there and a possible threat to others? Perhaps people watching violent media are less likely to want to put themselves in a situation where they may get attacked, having just been exposed to images of people being greviously harmed.

I'm not seing alternative interpretations eliminated.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Does this comment on the actual movie being watched or the type of people that watch certain films?


Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Were they in the middle of a Halo 3 game online?  Because, you know, a sprained ankle can wait, but some games cannot be paused :>

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

People who had played a violent game took significantly longer to help the victim than those who played a nonviolent game---73 seconds compared to 16 seconds. People who had played a violent game were also less likely to notice and report the fight.

I conclude that those who play violent games take longer to react or report it as they must first determine if what they heard was the start of the inevitable zombie apocalypse or if the victam was attacked by a necromorph. Better safe than sorry.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

Back to what I commented in first post, what are the long-term effects? What he should have done is taken a second group, make them do games/videos as well, then a day or two after call them back for a questionary or a reaction test "to see how it influences your senses in the long term". Then AFTER the test, have the 'scuffle' take place.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

Hell, I would settle for seeing what the data looks like an hour after playing video games.

 

Andrew Eisen

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

Hm... Only if they actually get to do something else that would help them get their mind off things, not just doing things (like tests) related to the game/movie itself. (Do you feel more violent, blah, bluh, bloo.)

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Wouldn't a proper scientific study require the get a baseline for how long it each person would take to respond without having played a violent game? How can this "clearly show" it takes people longer if they had been playing violent games. Maybe these people, on average, would have taken that long to begin with. We don't know because he fails at the scientific process.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Sorry but it's a double-blind experiment, with a reasonable large sample size. That actually IS scientific. A 300% increase with an even split of 160/160 is far more than mere standard deviation, especially if the groups were split at random it should be statistically nearly completely impossible to end up with such a bad split.

If with such a large testcase you're claiming it fails at the scientific process, you can toss out quite a lot of medicine tests that prove an actual effect, because hey, apparently if it isn't a few thousand test-subjects it's not good enough.

 

Edit: Where it fails at, by the way, is how it says a short-term effect translates to a long-term effect (most likely after repeated exposure). It might be that after clearing your head or doing something else the effect always dissipates and doesn't stay with you permanently, even if you play violent games all the time.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

Dosen't age,time and I dunno life make you more comfertable with life IE suffering...?

 


Gore,Violence,Sexauilty,Fear,Emotion these are but modes of transportation of story and thought, to take them from society you create a society of children and nannys, since adults are not required.


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Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Isn't Craig Anderson also the same guy who wrote the book "Stop teaching our kids to kill?"

Also he has done this over and over again, using Psychology research that has in no way ever proved that Violent Videogames ever caused harm.

He has also done flawed research after flawed research that has now way shown a strong positive correlation.

Also even if players of non-violent games took a minute to report the crime, it can be just like for everyone when we are all in shock and disbelief that something like that has happened in real life.

Giving shocks to real people, or noise blasts to people just to prove that violent videogames causes low levels of agression but are higher than those who don't play violent videogames are not really saying anything

So in conclusion, Craig Anderson is not really a true psychologist because he does not really understand how to read what the data said and he only reads it in his own opinion.

He should be saked because real psychologists don't come to those conclusions so easily.

TBoneTony

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

"Isn't Craig Anderson also the same guy who wrote the book "Stop teaching our kids to kill?""

No.  That was Dave Grossman.

 

Andrew Eisen

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Did this measure the effects on people who had undergone similar physiological stresses? Violent video games have been shown to be stimulating, increasing heartbeat and making a person produce adrenaline. What could be seen here could be a case of simple exhaustion.

An interesting test, I'd like to see it done with a heart rate monitor attached to the participants. Unfortunately I don't think adrenaline can easily be measured.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

How about cortisol, all you need to do is spit in a tube.

 

http://vgresearcher.wordpress.com/

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

Madorc

Each time I hear about a study like this one, I remember the case of Kitty Genovese, and then I wonder what kind of videogames they were playing in those days...

Madorc

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

In real life, it's kind of hard to just jump into the fray.  There is a lot at stake in a fight, between getting just a scratch to death.  Anything could actually happen and thats where most people tend to just walk away.  I can see something where if there were a group of friends that decide to get involved to stop 2 people, but just 1 person stopping the fight is a bit hard.  The people who do not jump into the fight to stop it might understand the dangers of getting involved and back away.  Sure, the people who try to stop it might be doing the right thing, but doing the smart thing is better.

How would you approach the fight?  Would you just jump in and put your arms out?  There's a good chance someone would just take a swing at you and eventually would become an all-out brawl of people, much worse than what was going on.  Alerting authorities would be the wisest of choices as the situation can be maintained, but they might not arrive in time if something fatal were to happen or if things got more drastic.

 

I'm thinking this study is at this point, useless, because there is more depth than what they thing is going on here.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

Yeah, but the behavior isn't the important thing here, it is the difference in behavior between the two groups that is the issue. Of course this is only an effect that we are seeing, you can not say it was specifically the violence. There are soooo many variables that need to be controlled before you could start drawing conclusions from this.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Ok three things:

1) Wow it took them a couple seconds longer, how horrible! 

2) That doesn't show any long term effect or violent behavior

3) Oh noes a sprained ankle, someobody call an ambulance! /sarcasm

Yet another useless study that proves nothing.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Why did they only use games from the 90s?


If you go crazy then I will still call you Superman.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

That's what I've always wondered.  Budget perhaps?

 

Andrew Eisen

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Not really, more in the line of being able to compare this study with others that use the same games (IMO). See study 1 procedure section first paragraph.

 

http://vgresearcher.wordpress.com/

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Yes, but that study was done in '07 when the games were still 10 to 15 years old.

 

Andrew Eisen

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

...and that study in '07 used those games because of another previous study that used those same games and so on. Eventually going back to studies where they first used those games. In any case, they've still got significant effects from those old games, are we expecting no effects just because the violence we see in those games seem innocuous in comparison to modern games? But most people would not call them non-violent. So I'm inferring there's something (e.g. violent acts) that transcends time and medium that affects our behaviours.

http://vgresearcher.wordpress.com/

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

The '07 study doesn't cite a previous study using those games.

And just to be clear, I'm not criticizing the use of old games (although I would if they were using something like Outlaw for the Atari 2600).  I've just always wondered why these studies invariably use such old titles.

 

Andrew Eisen

 

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

Some of the other posters have done a nice job in dissecting this study.

One thing I'd like to add is the issue of "demand characteristics"...this issue states that participants in an experiment will oftentimes try to guess what the hypothesis is, and try to produce the behavior expected of them.  Given that the dialog used in this study was, indeed, pretty obviously scripted, it wouldn't be hard for research subjects to guess something was up.  Gee...something completely unusual happens during the middle of a psychology experiment...what are the odds it could be part of the experiment.

Particularly with undergraudate students...and psychology students in particular (who know about such experiments), the potential for demand characteristics would be high.  That would be even more true if they were familiar with Dr. Bushman's research in the past.

Yes, Dr. Bushman and Anderson always seem to find what they're looking for.  A close examination of the data of their studies often finds that, at very least, they should have been much more modest in their conclusions.  Unfortunately this kind of irresponsible science is just too common in psychology.

Cool study title though.  Gotta give him props for that. 

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

I'm sorry, but a sprained ankle? Really? I'm supposed to rush to help someone with a sprained ankle?

Also, where are the pre-game session results? Was there an actual change observed?

Reality/////////////////////////////////////Fantasy. Seems like a pretty thick line to me...

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

I'm guessing it's kind of hard to do a before and after with an experiment like this.

---------------------------------

Internet troll > internet paladin

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Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Obviously this guy didn't need no education.  Maybe it's Time he started Learning To Fly.

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Fangamer

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

 I see what you did there.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

..... when I feel the littlest bit of pride in my state, which is an economic toilet, this happens.

 

ugh

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

Not only is this a load of shit, but U-of-M sucks, too :P MSU all the way! *only saying that cause my sis goes to MSU*

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

I LOL at this type of study. I mean, couldn't it just be the result of personality types and not the violent video games? I think stuff like this is for chuckles. The debates will rage on. Nobody will or can prove anything. We are all different right? We're human. Depending on your bias, you will find the findings of your choice out there. *goes back to playing fps games for 10 hours*

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Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Interesting facts about this study (more details in my earlier post):

-None of the games used appear to be from the last decade.  They range from '91 to '98.

-The staged fight was prerecorded and played back.  A thrown chair and kicked door were the only "real" elements.

-Regardless of the type of game, only a quarter of the participants actually helped the "victim."

-Regardless of the type of game, the overwhelming majority heard the fight (only about 10 or 12 of the total 320 didn't).

-Neither group interpreted the fight as very severe.  On a scale of 1 to 10 it was ranked 5.91 by those who played a violent game and 6.44 by those who didn't.

-The time difference between violent and nonviolent movie goers to help the lady outside was less than two seconds.

 

Andrew Eisen

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

I don't see how that "fight" could be anything higher than a 3....

-If an apple a day keeps the doctor away....what happens when a doctor eats an apple?-

-Optimum est pati quod emendare non possis-It is best to endure what you cannot change-

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

I like your breakdown. This is an excellent example of how you can spin the exact same data to make it sound negative when a more unbiased view can show it really is rather mixed and doesn't really confirm much of anything. I'm sure it just sounds so much better if he discovered some kind of link. Too much politics in science, i don't trust politicians and much less political scientists.

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Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Sounds like another batch of data along the lines of "2 miliseconds longer of an airhorn". And about as convincing.

How can you call people's reaction to a RERECORDED fight legitimate data for your study? Seeing it on a screen immediately removes you the situation, yet did they try and control for this?

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

Maybe they were expected to try to claw at the screen to get to the other side and break the fight up? That's what I would do... :)

Reality/////////////////////////////////////Fantasy. Seems like a pretty thick line to me...

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

THIS STUDY HAS JACK THOMPSON´S SEAL OF APROVAL...

 

The cynical side of videogames (spanish only): http://thelostlevel.blogspot.com/ My DeviantArt Page (aka DeviantCensorship): http://www.darkknightstrikes.deviantart.com/

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

Why would I get up from playing Halo to help somebody with a sprained ankle? It's just an ankle. They could atleast fake a serious injury. Also, how close was the fight to the players? Out in the hall, or in the same room? Did the subjects know it was fake? Was this in a group? That's another pesky variable, and to get results, you must remove all unecessary variables.

Maybe they were not able to pause right away. If I'm in the middle of a battle or cutscene and the guy just has a sprained ankle, he can wait a few second for me to ask if he wants help. Who wants to get up from a really interesting game or movie? I'm sure all of us have hesitated when interrupted, especially if it's for a non-emergency.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to ...

I I I I I I have become...comfortably numb

GREAT song by the way.

But come on, seriously? What were the control factors? How were subjects selected? What other variables might have come into play? Were these controlled for?

This study wreaks of bad science.

Re: Study: Violent Games Make Players "Comfortably Numb" to

Maybe video games have something to do with my apathy towards violence. Maybe. But there are other factors too. They're just focusing on the popular media again.

I wish I could make a better comment than that, but this is just more obvious news. Only difference is the Pink Floyd reference.

Every week it's more of the same. A politician gets pissed, Jack does something silly, and a scientist proves or disproves Halo's effect on the criminally insane. These stories don't bring a lot of intreast and input from me as much as the RapeLay story did.

I'm an attention whore. So visit my DevaintArt and feed my ego. Feed the whore. http://keaton2008.deviantart.com/

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